Why people keep falling for viral hoaxes

Ars Technica:

When confronted with new information, humans don’t always do the logical thing and evaluate it on its own merits, Phillips says. Instead, we often make snap decisions based on how the information adheres with our existing worldviews.

If the story pushed by a meme or hoax fits in a way that feels like a coherent narrative to a critical mass of people, it’s game over, says Phillips.



The term “lamp-shading” refers to a writing tool in which a writer acknowledges what has just occurred to signal to the audience that they know what has just happened and that they are aware that the audience knows what has happened.


Lampshade Hanging (or, more informally, “Lampshading”) is the writers’ trick of dealing with any element of the story that threatens the audience’s Willing Suspension of Disbelief, whether a very implausible plot development, or a particularly blatant use of a trope, by calling attention to it and simply moving on.

The creators are using the tactic of self-deprecatingly pointing out their own flaws themselves, thus depriving critics and opponents of their ammunition.

Lampshading adalah ketika pembuat atau penulis cerita dengan sengaja mengarahkan perhatian pembaca/penonton ke titik lemah sebuah cerita/plot sebagai sinyal kepada pembaca/penonton bahwa kelemahan (atau keanehan, atau kesalahan) tersebut adalah sesuatu yang memang disengaja atau disadari akan terjadi, dan tidak disembunyikan.

Lampshading seringkali digunakan sebagai cara untuk menangani masalah atau isu yang muncul dalam sebuah cerita.

“… nah, sebentar lagi pasti banyak haters yang muncul dan mem-bully.” adalah salah satu contoh sederhana dari lampshading, istilah overused kerennya… lampshading dengan kearifan lokal. Penulis/pembuat cerita sengaja mengarahkan perhatian ke titik masalah sejak awal untuk menunjukkan bahwa penulis memang tahu letak kesalahannya -namun tetap punya pembenaran untuk itu. Mengapa penulis perlu tahu kalau pembaca/penonton tahu kalau penulis melakukan kesengajaan? Salah satunya adalah untuk mengurangi kritikkan.

People who read Facebook article previews think they know more than they actually do

Orang yang membaca preview artikel di Facebook cenderung berpikir kalau mereka tahu banyak.

Dikutip dari journals.sagepub.com:

Despite the fact that the average social media user only clicks on a small fraction of political content available in their News Feed, social media use correlates with political knowledge. From where, then, does this knowledge come? We argue that Facebook’s News Feed itself, with its short article previews, provides enough political information for learning to occur. However, this learning comes with an additional consequence: audiences who only read article previews think they know more than they actually do, especially individuals who are motivated to seek emotions.

Baca judul? +1 poin.

Baca ringkasan/preview artikel di bawah judul? +100 poin.

Video seekor lumba-lumba mengejar makan siangnya

Sebuah video luar biasa yang memperlihatkan seekor lumba-lumba yang sedang mengejar targernya.

Dari thumbnail-nya bisa ditebak kalau video ini berakhir dengan happy ending untuk si lumba-lumba, tapi yang menarik adalah bagaimana si lumba-lumba tersebut mengejar ikan buruannya di perairan yang cukup dangkal sampai-sampai si lumba-lumba tersebut harus berenang menyamping.

Nature is fucking 🔥

On the initial 24-second charge you see the dolphin swimming sideways, this is because the water was very shallow. The dolphin also breaches a few times during the charge, this is to gain speed because air provides less resistance than water. Once the dolphin catches the fish, he has to tear it apart by rubbing and smashing the fish against the sand. This is because their mouths don’t have enough jaw pressure to bite the fish in half, so when a dolphin catches a large fish they have to figure out how to tear it up.

Is Sharing Your Feelings Always Healthy?

Markham Heid via Medium:

“Emotions are contagious, and you can impact the emotions of others by sharing how you feel,” Caruso says. He points out that emotions often arise suddenly, can be fleeting, and are dependent on a lot of contextual factors, from how well you slept to how recently you’ve eaten. “How you’re feeling in the moment can be the product of all these unrelated things,” Caruso says. And by expressing what you’re feeling, not only do you pass some of your emotion to others, but you also have to deal with the aftermath of that disclosure.

“The way we’re built, we naturally want to describe what we’re feeling to others, but the reality is that sometimes this would hurt other people or would be embarrassing to us,” says James Pennebaker, a professor of psychology at the University of Texas. And when you share your feelings with someone else, you risk them refuting or rejecting the validity of what you told them, which can be devastating. “In that situation, you may end up worse off than if you’d kept what you were feeling to yourself,” Pennebaker says.

Spotlight effect

Pernah merasa kalau semua yang kita lakukan akan selalu diperhatikan dan diamati oleh orang lain? Perasaan seperti itu punya nama, dan dikenal sebagai “spotlight effect”. Sesuai namanya, kita merasa seakan-akan berada di bawah sebuah lampu sorot dan diperhatikan oleh orang lain, padahal pada kenyataannya hal seperti itu tidak terjadi.


The spotlight effect is something that we all experience frequently in our everyday life. Essentially, whenever we think about what other people think about us, we tend to overestimate how likely they are to notice things that we do, as well as how likely they are to care about those things.

Louis Chew via Medium:

This phenomenon is known as the Spotlight Effect — people tend to believe that more people take notice of their actions and appearance than is actually the case. It’s an apt name. We think we are in the spotlight and all eyes are on us. In reality, no one cares.

If you’re not convinced that nobody remembers the word you mispronounced back in high school, try to recall the last time your classmate made a similar mistake. You’ll find that it’s a lot harder than remembering your own mistake.

If people want to buy it, they will. If they don’t, they won’t.

Saya punya pengalaman yang mirip dengan redditor ini. Koleksi game saya masih sedikit dan memang jarang beli game di Steam, namun waktu tau kalau Age of Empires II lagi diskon di Steam saya langsung beli lengkap dengan versi HD-nya. Setelah memainkan versi bajakannya selama bertahun-tahun, terus bisa beli versi legalnya, rasanya sangat puas sekali.


Cara membersihkan hidung yang tersumbat dengan cepat



  1. Tarik napas yang dalam.
  2. Buang napas secara perlahan-lahan, dan kemudian tahan napas ketika tidak ada lagi udara yang bisa dikeluarkan.
  3. Masih sambil menahan napas, goyangkan kepala, ke atas/belakang (sampai melihat ke langit) dan ke bawah (sampai melihat tanah).
  4. Lakukan sampai Anda benar-benar butuh bernapas.
  5. Kemudian bernapas, dan nikmati hidung yang lega. Kalau masih belum berhasil, ulangi langkah di atas.



Social media runs on rage

Scott Galloway via Medium:

Most people cite as culprits the tone set by our leaders and the media’s adoption of rage as a business model. No doubt. But I believe the real fire starter is the tobacco of our generation, social media. It’s the algorithms that have determined that the path to more engagement, clicks, and Nissan ads is paved in rage. The algorithms sense if you lean left or right, then begin shoving you to the poles and serving you increasingly provocative and extreme content you can’t turn away from, to scratch a tribal itch.